303 – 288 thousand years ago
Our picture of human evolution in Africa around 300 thousand years ago has changed dramatically in just the last few years.
Here’s something we already knew. This skull was found at Broken Hill, Zambia, in 1921, He (yes, “he,” he’s probably male) is sometimes known as Rhodesian Man. He looks like he’s a step away from Homo erectus, but not quite Homo sapiens. He’s heavily built, with massive brow ridges. (He looks like he could pass the “pencil test” for erectus: you could rest a pencil on those ridges. Of course, seriously, this isn’t enough to define a species.) But he’s got a flat face and relatively large brain. He could be significantly younger than 300,000 years ago.
But now Rhodesian Man is bracketed both geographically and evolutionarily by some new finds. From Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, around 315 thousand years ago, come these skulls, which are more unequivocally Homo sapiens. pushing the fossil record of our species back 100 thousand years. The skull is still archaic – elongated rather than globular like a modern human – but the face is now tucked under the skull, as it is with us. The brow ridges are not as pronounced as with Rhodesian man, although still heavy for modern Homo sapiens.
And we now have dates for Homo naledi, from South Africa, of 335-236 thousand years ago. This recently discovered species had a tiny brain, and may have been adapted for climbing trees, but still makes it into genus Homo based on other features (teeth and jaws, lower skeleton). The initial guess from a lot of folks was that this was a very early member of our genus, somewhere around early Homo erectus or earlier. But instead, Homo naledi looks to have been around at the same time as early Homo sapiens.
In other words, Africa 300,000 years ago was home to an impressive variety of humans – archaic Homo sapiens in Morocco, near relations in Zambia, and barely-humans in South Africa.