Two roads diverged

7.88-7.46 million years ago

There was a lot of hullabaloo a few years back over claims that a jaw assigned to the 7.2 million year old Graecopithecus freygbergi represents the earliest known human relative after the hominin/chimp split. The jaw was found in Greece, which suggests that the split happened around the Mediterranean, rather than in Africa. (This doesn’t take anything way from the claim that Africa is the main center of later human evolution, up to 2 million years ago, which would have taken place when Graecopithecus’ descendants migrated to Africa).

All this needs to be taken fairly skeptically: a mandible with one tooth isn’t overwhelming evidence.

The date for Graeccopithecus is at the upper end of dates given for the chimp-human split. The TimeTree site, sponsored by Penn State, Arizona State, the National Science Foundation, and NASA, lets you enter any pair of species you want (common names or Latin) and find out the time since they split from a common ancestor. You get a range of estimates from the scientific literature, along with means and medians. The site lets you track down sources if you want. Entering Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes gives you a median estimate of  the time of the split of 6.4 million years, a mean estimate of 6.7, and a whopping confidence interval of 5.1 to 11.8 million years, based on 79 studies.

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