Tag Archives: Earth

Sun, Earth, Moon, Earthrise

4.56 billion years ago

The Hadean eon begins with the origin of the Earth 4.56 Bya.

Take a look at the Moon tonight. It’s waning, just past half full. When the moon is full you can cover it with your thumb. 4.56 billion years ago the new moon was ruddy with volcanic activity even on its dark side. The Moon seen from Earth was 16 times wider, covering 250 times more sky, and 250 times brighter when full. That is what you would have seen just after Earth acquired a surface you could stand on, although you would have needed an oxygen mask. And watch out for massive meteorites, still falling frequently, and volcanism.

Chance events late in the history of planet formation played a huge role in shaping the solar system, including the collision with the planet Theia (named after the Greek goddess of the Moon) that gave Earth her outsized satellite. Life might have developed very differently – there might be no intelligent life — without the Moon’s influence on tides and on Earth’s axis.

Here’s what Earth and Moon look like today: the famous picture of Earthrise, taken December 24, 1968, by William Anders abroad Apollo 8.earthrise copy

In 1969, the Brazilian singer Caetano Veloso was imprisoned by Brazil’s military dictatorship. He was expelled from the country and lived in exile until 1972. In prison he saw a picture of the Earth from space and wrote this song, “Terra” (Earth).

Terra

Quando eu me encontrava preso, na cela de uma cadeia 
Foi que eu vi pela primeira vez, as tais fotografias 
Em que apareces inteira, porém lá não estava nua 
E sim coberta de nuvens
Terra, terra, Por mais distante o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria?

Ninguém supõe a morena, dentro da estrela azulada
. Na vertigem do cinema, mando um abraço pra ti 
Pequenina como se eu fosse o saudoso poeta 
E fosses a Paraíba
Terra, terra, 
Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria

Eu estou apaixonado, por uma menina terra,
 Signo de elemento terra. Do mar se diz terra à vista 
Terra para o pé firmeza, terra para a mão carícia
 Outros astros lhe são guia
Terra, terra,
 Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria

Eu sou um leão de fogo, sem ti me consumiria
 A mim mesmo eternamente, e de nada valeria 
Acontecer de eu ser gente. e gente é outra alegria 
Diferente das estrelas
Terra, terra,
 Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria

De onde nem tempo e nem espaço, que a força te de coragem
 Pra gente te dar carinho, durante toda a viagem 
Que realizas do nada, através do qual carregas 
O nome da tua carne
Terra, terra, 
Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria
Terra, terra, 
Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria
Terra, terra,
 Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria?

Na sacadas do sobrado, Da eterna São Salvador 
Há lembranças de donzelas, do tempo do Imperador
 Tudo, tudo na Bahia faz a gente querer bem
A Bahia tem um jeito
Terra, terra,
 Por mais distante o errante navegante 
Quem jamais te esqueceria. Terra

Earth

When I found myself arrested
 In a prison cell
, That’s when I first saw
 Those famous pictures
 In which you appear entire, 
However you were not naked 
But covered by clouds.
Earth! Earth!
 However distant 
The wandering navigator 
Who could ever forget you?

Nobody thinks of the brunette
 Inside the bluish star. 
In the vertigo of the movie
 I send you an embrace, 
Little one – as if I were
 the homesick poet 
And you were the Paraíba
Earth! Earth!
 However distant 
The wandering navigator 
Who could ever forget you?

I’m just in love 
With an earth girl, 
Sign of the element “Earth.” 
From the sea is said “Land in sight.” 
Earth to the foot: solidity. 
Earth to the hand: a caress.
 Other stars are guides for you
Earth! Earth! 
However distant 
The wandering navigator 
Who could ever forget you?

I am a lion of fire
 Without you 
I would burn myself up eternally 
And it would be worth nothing, 
The fact of my being human. 
And human is another joy 
Different than the stars’
Earth! Earth! 
However distant 
The wandering navigator 
Who could ever forget you?

From where there’s neither time nor space 
May the force send courage 
For us to treat you tenderly
 During all the journey 
That you carry out through nothing
 Through which you bear
 The name of your flesh
Earth! Earth!
 However distant 
The wandering navigator 
Who could ever forget you?
Earth! Earth! 
However distant
 The wandering navigator
 Who could ever forget you?
Earth! Earth! 
However distant
 The wandering navigator
Who could ever forget you?

In the townhouses’ terraces 
Of eternal Salvador 
There are reminders of maidens 
From the time of the Emperor 
Everything, everything in Bahia
 Makes us fond 
Bahia has such a way.
Earth! Earth! 
However distant
 The wandering navigator
 Who could ever forget you? 
Earth

Advertisements

Rare Earth

4.75-4.49 Billion years ago.

A big day on Logarithmic History: the origin of our Solar System including planet Earth. First a note on what’s odd about our planetary system.

Two preceding posts wrestled with the Fermi Paradox: If the universe is full of advanced civilizations, why haven’t we seen any sign of them so far? One answer to the paradox might be that our solar system is wildly unusual, so that abodes for the evolution of complex life are rare. We can finally start to address this matter with some real evidence. According to the NASA exoplanet archive, we’ve now discovered 3440 exoplanets (planets outside our solar system), with many more unconfirmed candidates. This is enough to do some statistics, and indications are that our solar system might indeed be out of the ordinary.

grand-tack

Exoplanets smaller than Jupiter are overwhelmingly closer, mostly a lot closer, to their primary stars than Earth is to the Sun. And the same models of planet formation that have done a pretty good job predicting some of the wild variation we see in other systems – “Hot Jupiters” orbiting closer to their primaries than Mercury, “Super Earths” in between Earth and gas giants in size – don’t readily generate systems that look much like ours. One model that does seem to do a good job with our solar system involves something special, a Grand Tack, where Jupiter and Saturn are caught in an orbital resonance that carries them into the inner solar system and back out, shaking up inner-system planet formation in the process. Wild stuff, but the latest model is even wilder: at the beginning of planet formation, there may have been a generation of Super Earths in the inner solar system. The Grand Tack of Jupiter and Saturn would have sent these planets colliding into one another. The Super-Earths and most of the debris of these collisions would have fallen into the sun, but what the debris left would then have condensed into the unusual inner planets we know, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars. And Theia. (Theia? you ask. See the next post).

If this model holds up, the formation of our solar system takes on some of the flavor of mythology. This isn’t quite the old story about Chronos slaying Ouranos, and Zeus slaying Chronos. Instead, in the new story, two giants, Jupiter and Saturn, travel closer to the sun and set a generation of Titans – their like will not be there again – to fighting and destroying one another. Jupiter and Saturn depart, and a new generation arises from the wreckage. An unlikely sequence of events, but then our planet could be a very unlikely place. And all the more special for that.

Sun, Earth, Moon, Earthrise, Terra

January 20. 4.76 – 4.5 Bya (billion years ago)

The Hadean eon begins with the origin of the Earth 4.56 Bya.

Take a look at the Moon tonight. It’s waxing; it will be full in four days. Today when the moon is full you can cover it with your thumb. 4.5 billion years ago the new moon was ruddy with volcanic activity even on its dark side. The Moon seen from Earth was 16 times wider, covering 250 times more sky, and 250 times brighter when full. That is what you would have seen just after Earth acquired a surface you could stand on, although you would have needed an oxygen mask. And watch out for massive meteorites, still falling frequently, and volcanism.

Chance events late in the history of planet formation played a huge role in shaping the solar system, including the collision with the planet Theia (named after the Greek goddess of the Moon) that gave Earth her outsized satellite. Life might have developed very differently – there might be no intelligent life — without the Moon’s influence on tides and on Earth’s axis.

Here’s what Earth and Moon look like today: the famous picture of Earthrise, taken December 24, 1968, by William Anders abroad Apollo 8.earthrise copy

In 1969, the Brazilian singer Caetano Veloso was imprisoned by Brazil’s military dictatorship. He was expelled from the country and lived in exile until 1972. In prison he saw a picture of the Earth from space and wrote this song, “Terra” (Earth).

Terra
Quando eu me encontrava preso, na cela de uma cadeia 
Foi que eu vi pela primeira vez, as tais fotografias 
Em que apareces inteira, porém lá não estava nua 
E sim coberta de nuvens
Terra, terra, Por mais distante o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria?

 

Ninguém supõe a morena, dentro da estrela azulada
. Na vertigem do cinema, mando um abraço pra ti 
Pequenina como se eu fosse o saudoso poeta 
E fosses a Paraíba
Terra, terra, 
Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria

Eu estou apaixonado, por uma menina terra,
 Signo de elemento terra. Do mar se diz terra à vista 
Terra para o pé firmeza, terra para a mão carícia
 Outros astros lhe são guia
Terra, terra,
 Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria

Eu sou um leão de fogo, sem ti me consumiria
 A mim mesmo eternamente, e de nada valeria 
Acontecer de eu ser gente. e gente é outra alegria 
Diferente das estrelas
Terra, terra,
 Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria

De onde nem tempo e nem espaço, que a força te de coragem
 Pra gente te dar carinho, durante toda a viagem 
Que realizas do nada, através do qual carregas 
O nome da tua carne
Terra, terra, 
Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria
Terra, terra, 
Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria
Terra, terra,
 Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria?

Na sacadas do sobrado, Da eterna São Salvador 
Há lembranças de donzelas, do tempo do Imperador
 Tudo, tudo na Bahia faz a gente querer bem
A Bahia tem um jeito
Terra, terra,
 Por mais distante o errante navegante 
Quem jamais te esqueceria. Terra

Earth
When I found myself arrested
 In a prison cell
, That’s when I first saw
 Those famous pictures
 In which you appear entire, 
However you were not naked 
But covered by clouds.
Earth! Earth!
 However distant 
The wandering navigator 
Who could ever forget you?

 

Nobody thinks of the brunette
 Inside the bluish star. 
In the vertigo of the movie
 I send you an embrace, 
Little one – as if I were
 the homesick poet 
And you were the Paraíba
Earth! Earth!
 However distant 
The wandering navigator 
Who could ever forget you?

I’m just in love 
With an earth girl, 
Sign of the element “Earth.” 
From the sea is said “Land in sight.” 
Earth to the foot: solidity. 
Earth to the hand: a caress.
 Other stars are guides for you
Earth! Earth! 
However distant 
The wandering navigator 
Who could ever forget you?

I am a lion of fire
 Without you 
I would burn myself up eternally 
And it would be worth nothing, 
The fact of my being human. 
And human is another joy 
Different than the stars’
Earth! Earth! 
However distant 
The wandering navigator 
Who could ever forget you?

From where there’s neither time nor space 
May the force send courage 
For us to treat you tenderly
 During all the journey 
That you carry out through nothing
 Through which you bear
 The name of your flesh
Earth! Earth!
 However distant 
The wandering navigator 
Who could ever forget you?
Earth! Earth! 
However distant
 The wandering navigator
 Who could ever forget you?
Earth! Earth! 
However distant
 The wandering navigator
Who could ever forget you?

In the townhouses’ terraces 
Of eternal Salvador 
There are reminders of maidens 
From the time of the Emperor 
Everything, everything in Bahia
 Makes us fond 
Bahia has such a way.
Earth! Earth! 
However distant
 The wandering navigator
 Who could ever forget you? 
Earth

Sun, Earth, Moon, Earthrise, “Terra”

January 20. 4.784 – 4.489 Bya (billion years ago)

The Hadean eon begins with the origin of the Earth 4.56 Bya.

You can’t see the Moon tonight; there’s a new moon. Today, even when the moon is full you can cover it with your thumb. 4.5 billion years ago the new moon was ruddy with volcanic activity even on its dark side. The Moon seen from Earth was 16 times wider, covering 250 times more sky, and 250 times brighter when full. That is what you would have seen just after Earth acquired a surface you could stand on, although you would have needed an oxygen mask. And watch out for massive meteorites, still falling frequently, and volcanism.

Chance events late in the history of planet formation played a huge role in shaping the solar system, including the collision with the planet Theia (named after the Greek goddess of the Moon) that gave Earth her outsized satellite. Life might have developed very differently – there might be no intelligent life — without the Moon’s influence on tides and on Earth’s axis.

Here’s what Earth and Moon look like today: the famous picture of Earthrise, taken December 24, 1968, by William Anders abroad Apollo 8.

In 1969, the Brazilian singer Caetano Veloso was imprisoned by Brazil’s military dictatorship. He was expelled from the country and lived in exile until 1972. In prison he saw a picture of the Earth from space and wrote this song, “Terra” (Earth).

Terra
Quando eu me encontrava preso, na cela de uma cadeia 
Foi que eu vi pela primeira vez, as tais fotografias 
Em que apareces inteira, porém lá não estava nua 
E sim coberta de nuvens
Terra, terra, Por mais distante o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria?

Ninguém supõe a morena, dentro da estrela azulada
. Na vertigem do cinema, mando um abraço pra ti 
Pequenina como se eu fosse o saudoso poeta 
E fosses a Paraíba
Terra, terra, 
Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria

Eu estou apaixonado, por uma menina terra,
 Signo de elemento terra. Do mar se diz terra à vista 
Terra para o pé firmeza, terra para a mão carícia
 Outros astros lhe são guia
Terra, terra,
 Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria

Eu sou um leão de fogo, sem ti me consumiria
 A mim mesmo eternamente, e de nada valeria 
Acontecer de eu ser gente. e gente é outra alegria 
Diferente das estrelas
Terra, terra,
 Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria

De onde nem tempo e nem espaço, que a força te de coragem
 Pra gente te dar carinho, durante toda a viagem 
Que realizas do nada, através do qual carregas 
O nome da tua carne
Terra, terra, 
Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria
Terra, terra, 
Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria
Terra, terra,
 Por mais distânte o errante navegante Quem jamais te esqueceria?

Na sacadas do sobrado, Da eterna São Salvador 
Há lembranças de donzelas, do tempo do Imperador
 Tudo, tudo na Bahia faz a gente querer bem
A Bahia tem um jeito
Terra, terra,
 Por mais distante o errante navegante 
Quem jamais te esqueceria. Terra

Earth
When I found myself arrested
 In a prison cell
, That’s when I first saw
 Those famous pictures
 In which you appear entire, 
However you were not naked 
But covered by clouds.
Earth! Earth!
 However distant 
The wandering navigator 
Who could ever forget you?

Nobody thinks of the brunette
 Inside the bluish star. 
In the vertigo of the movie
 I send you an embrace, 
Little one – as if I were
 The homesick poet 
And you were the Paraíba
Earth! Earth!
 However distant 
The wandering navigator 
Who could ever forget you?

I’m just in love 
With an earth girl, 
Sign of the element “Earth.” 
From the sea is said “Land in sight.” 
Earth to the foot: solidity. 
Earth to the hand: a caress.
 Other stars are guides for you
Earth! Earth! 
However distant 
The wandering navigator 
Who could ever forget you?

I am a lion of fire
 Without you 
I would burn myself up eternally 
And it would be worth nothing, 
The fact of my being human. 
And human is another joy 
Different than the stars’
Earth! Earth! 
However distant 
The wandering navigator 
Who could ever forget you?

From where there’s neither time nor space 
May the force send courage 
For us to treat you tenderly
 During all the journey 
That you carry out through nothing
 Through which you bear
 The name of your flesh
Earth! Earth!
 However distant 
The wandering navigator 
Who could ever forget you?
Earth! Earth! 
However distant
 The wandering navigator
 Who could ever forget you?
Earth! Earth! 
However distant
 The wandering navigator
Who could ever forget you?

In the townhouses’ terraces 
Of eternal Salvador 
There are reminders of maidens 
From the time of the Emperor 
Everything, everything in Bahia
 Makes us fond 
Bahia has such a way.
Earth! Earth! 
However distant
 The wandering navigator
 Who could ever forget you? 
Earth

Sun, Earth, Moon

Our star, our planet, our satellite, some tweets.